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Sample Operation:

This section demonstrates the use of  the full version of Wind Loads on Structures 4.  The screens show the data already entered. The accompanying text describes the actions the user would go through in using the software.

 

The building has an L-shape with hipped roofs.
    

Example: Building with one additional section


    Main Building
         Wall Height - 12 ft.
         Building Dimensions - 50 x 20 ft.
         Roof Type - Hipped
         Roof Slope - 6:12
         Building Category II - Normal 

    Section 
         Wall Height - 12 ft.
         Building Dimensions - 20 x 30 ft.
         Roof Type - Hipped
         Roof Slope - 6:12

    Component and Cladding 
         Wall Component
         Dimensions - 5 x 2 ft.
         Zone 4
              

Data Input   

 

Note: Click on figure to review the full screen(1024X768 display recommended).
Click BACK on Explorer toolbar to return.
  

Figure 1

Starting the Program (Figure 1)

To start Wind Loads on Structures 4, Go to your "Start" button and select All Programs > Standards Design Group, Inc > Wind Loads on Structures 4

 

The program will open with two open windows; the copyright information and a Structure List for your new design. 

 

Select the "Building" option from the structure list window then click the "OK" button.

 

Figure 2

Section List (Figure 2)

 

When the user starts a building design, two screens appear. The text below discusses the Main Section input screen. The other screen is titled the "Section List." To add a section to the main section or any other sections, click on the "New Section" button on the Section List screen. This action brings up the "Section 1" screen. When a building consists of several sections, double clicking on a particular section in the list recalls the section screen for that section. The user can make alterations to any section at any time.  In this example, we only require one extra section.

 

If you should close this window, go to Design > Input > Structure Geometry to open all section windows and the Section List.

 

Figure 3

Main Section (Figure 3)

The user should begin here when using the software to calculate wind loads on a building.  If this window is not visible, double click on the words "Main Section" in the Section List window or go to Design > Input > Structure Geometry

 

Enclosure Classification: "Open," "Enclosed," "Partially Enclosed," or "Determine Classification," are offered in the drop down list. SDG suggests that after completely defining the building, including windows and other fenestrations, the user return to this screen and select "determine Classification" if any uncertainty exists. The software defaults to an enclosed classification.  For this example select "Enclosed".

 

Wall Dimensions: This screen facilitates the input for the main building section.

    1. Wall Dimensions Table. Click on a box in the length column, type in the dimension and press the enter key. This dimension is then entered into 2 boxes, Row 1 and Row 3 or Row 2 and Row 4. SDG suggests entering the long dimension, "50" ft., of the section in Row 1 or Row 3 and "20" ft. in Row 2 or Row 4. If the building has roofs that extend beyond the wall, click on the appropriate box in the Overhang column, type in the dimension, and press the enter key.  There are no overhangs in this example.

    2. Eave Height: Click on the eave height box, type in the wall's height from the ground to the roof line, 12 ft., and press the tab key or click on another data entry box.

    3. Parapet Height: If your building has a parapet, click on the parapet height box, type in the parapet height, and press the tab key or click on another data entry box.  This examples does not have a parapet.  (Parapet Enclosure information may be found in the commentary of the ASCE 7 standard C6.5.11.5 Parapets)

    4. Roof Shape: Click on the arrow to the right of the roof shape box to obtain a drop down list of roof types. Select the roof shape for the building by placing the cursor on it and clicking.  Select "Hipped" for this example.

    5. Roof Slope: The form of the roof slope table depends upon the roof shape selected. Click on the box(es), as appropriate, and enter roof slope(s). Both slopes in this example are 6:12.  Enter "6" in rows "A&B" and "C&D".  (The user may enter slopes as ratios (X:12) or in degrees. The user selects the format of the input by visiting the Options > Slopes on the main menu.)

Building Information: Click on the arrow to the right of the Building Category box to obtain a list of Building Categories (I through IV). Select the desired Building Category by placing the cursor on it and clicking. The software defaults to Building Category II which we will use for this example.

 

Section Drawing: As the user completes the section information, the software produces a drawing of the section. The Section Drawing assigns W1 through W4 to denote walls and capital letters to denote roof sections.

 

Section List

When the user starts a building design, two screens appear. The text above discussed the Main Section input screen. The other screen is titled the "Section List." To add a section to the main section or any other sections, click on the "New Section" button on the Section List screen. This action brings up the Section screen. When a building consists of several sections, double clicking on a particular section in the list recalls the section screen for that section. The user can make alterations to any section at any time.
  

Figure 4
 

Section (Figure 4)

The Section Screen has a very similar appearance to the Main Section screen. It works in a very similar manner.

 

Enclosure Classification: All additional sections are enclosed.

 

Wall Dimensions: This screen facilitates the input for the additional sections.

    1. Wall Dimensions Table: Enter "30" ft. for Row 1 or 3 and "20" ft. for Row 2 or 4.  There are no overhangs in this example.

    2. Wall Height: Enter "12" ft.

    3. Roof Shape: Select "Hipped"

    4. Roof Slope: Enter "6" :12 for both slopes

Section information:

    1. Section Name: Type in a name for the section. In the absence of a name, the software assigns numerical designation to the section.  Type "Garage" in this box.  Note that the Section List and the header to the current window now display "Section - Garage".

    2. Section Connected to: This references the section to which this section will attach.  Click on the arrow to obtain a drop down menu of available sections.  Since the "Main Section" is the only other section available, this is the option we choose.

    3. Connected to wall: This references which wall on the selected section you wish this section to attach to.  Click on the arrow to the right of the box to obtain a drop down list of walls.  Select "W3" to connect the "Garage" to wall three on the Main Section.

    4. Position on W3:  This entry allows the user to designate how far counter-clockwise the section is on the connected wall.  We will leave this value at "0".

    5. Rotate Left: This button rotates the current section counterclockwise.  Click this button once to rotate the section.

    6. Rotate Right: This button rotates the current section clockwise.

Section Drawing: When the user completes the section information, the software produces a drawing of the section. The Section Drawing assigns W1 through W4 to denote walls and capital letters to denote roof sections.  The highlighted wall is the designated connector wall to the selected section.  In our case, "W1" of the Garage will connect to "W3" of the Main Section.
    

 

Figure 5
 

Composite Building Sketch (Figure 5)

Click on the "Composite Drawing" button from the tool bar to bring up a composite sketch of the building that also shows wind directions for the building, current numerical wall designations, and current alphabetical roof designations. The user may view this at will to ensure the software and the user agree concerning building shape and orientation.
  

Figure 6
 

Location Information (Figure 6)

 

Go to Design > Input > Location on the main menu.

This form allows for the input of wind speed values, exposure categories, and topographic information.

 

Terrain Exposure: The software allows a different exposure for each wind direction. The software defaults to exposure C. To change the exposure associated with a wind direction, double click on the box to obtain a drop down list, place the cursor on the appropriate exposure category (A through D) and click.  We will use "C" for this example.

 

Topography: 

 

We will not consider topography in this example.

    1. Topographic Shape: Click on the arrow to obtain a list of Topographic Shapes described in ASCE-7. If the user selects any Topographic Shape other than "None," three dimension boxes become active.

    2. LH: Click on this box, type in the dimension, and press the tab key or click on another data entry box.

    3. H: Click on this box, type in the dimension, and press the tab key or click on another data entry box.

    4. x: Click on this box, type in the dimension, and press the tab key or click on another data entry box.

Basic Wind Speed:

Wind Speed Value: Click on the box and enter a wind speed or use the maps built into the software. The software contains the following maps: Continental USA and Alaska. Click on the arrow to the right of the box containing "Continental USA" to obtain a list. Click on the geographic area where the building is located. For "Continental USA" or "Alaska" click on the View Map button to bring up a map. Selecting other locations puts a value in the Basic Wind Speed box.  Enter "90" mph for this example. 
  


Figure 7
 

Basic Wind Speed Map (Figure 7)

Selecting either "Continental USA" or "Alaska" and clicking on the "View Map" button brings up a map divided into counties. Use the slide bar to view the portion of the map containing the region where the building is located. Place the crosshair on the map at the building location. The software shows the approximate wind speed at this location in a pop-up box. Double clicking enters this value into the Wind Speed Value box on the location form and reduces the map. The user can change the wind speed value, either by using the map to change location or by typing in a new value, at any time.
  

Figure 8
 

Height Increment List (Figure 8)

 

Go to Design > Input > Height Increment on the main menu.

This form allows the user to define height increments at which the software will calculate wind speeds.

 

Increment Method: Select "Standard" or "User Defined." For the "Standard" selection the software assigns height increments:  mean height, total height and 5 - 10 ft. increments in between.  For the "User Defined" selection, click on the arrow to the right of the box containing the words "Standard List" to obtain a drop down list. The user can change values in the table. Also, right clicking on the table allows insertion or deletion of rows. When the user enters numbers, either over existing numbers or in new rows, the table automatically sorts the table values in ascending order. Standard List selection leaves the assigned height increments in the table. Selecting "Auto Increments" activates the Auto section of this form.  The user cannot enter a value that is greater than the total height of the structure.

 

Auto:

    1. Click on the Increment Interval box and type in a user defined height increment.

    2. Click on the Number of Intervals box and type in the number of intervals.

Select the radial button next to "User Defined".  Go to the "z" list and type "16" in the box that currently has the number "17".  Notice how the 17 reappears in another row?  This is the top elevation of the building and cannot be removed.

 

  


Figure 9
 

Optional Factors (Figure 9)

 

Go to Design > Input > Optional Factors on the main menu.

This form allows the user to input factors not absolutely required for wind load calculations. Entry of data in this form will affect wind load computations.  No alterations need to be made here for this example.
  
The most common alteration is the Gust Effect Factor.  Many companies encourage the use of 0.85 here.  The software calculates the Gust Effect Factor from the equations in the ASCE 7 standard.  If you want to force the use of 0.85, this is where it is entered.

 

If you require the use of kd = 1, select the "Check if using load combinations from sources other than ASCE 7, section 2".

 


Figure 10
 

Main Wind Force Resisting System - Net Pressures (Figure 10)

This represents the first set of basic output data for this program. Double clicking on any value in the table that the software calculated brings up a detail screen that shows the values used in the calculation.  Four windows will open representing the four wind directions considered.
  


Figure 11
 

Velocity Pressure – Details (Figure 11)

Typical detail screen. The software provides several calculators that allow the user to perform parametric studies without going through the entire design process. The calculators are similar to the Details form shown here.
  

Figure 12
 

Component and Cladding Input (Figure 12)

 

Go to Design > Input > Components and Cladding

 

This table facilitates input for Components and Cladding calculations. The table contains four columns. The user must complete one row of the table before the software can perform components and cladding calculations.

 

Component Description Column: Type in a description of the component and cladding element.  Type "Window"

 

Wall/Roof: Double Click on a box in this column to obtain a drop down list. Select "Wall"

 

Surface Label: This is the surface according to the Composit Drawing that your component will be located.  Double Click on a box in this column to obtain a drop down list of wall or roof designations corresponding to the composite drawing. Select wall 3.

 

Zone: This is the zone according to ASCE 7.  For a wall, this will be zone 4 or the edge zones 5.  You also have the option of selecting "All".  This will calculate for both zone 4 and 5.  Select zone 4 for this example.

 

Area Column: Enter the area of the component and cladding element or the tributary area for the member.  Enter "5" ft. for the span and "2" ft for the width.  The effective area will automatically calculate 10 sq. ft.
  


Figure 13
 

Components and Cladding Net Pressures (Figure 13)

 

Go to Design > Results > Components and Cladding

This screen contains the basic output for components and cladding calculations. Clicking on any value in the table that the software calculated brings up a detail screen that shows the values used in the calculation.  The results display both a positive and negative value at the mean height.  This is a requirement in ASCE 7.
  


Figure 14
 

C & C External Pressure Coefficient – Details (Figure 14)

Typical detail screen. The software provides several calculators that allow the user to perform parametric studies without going through the entire design process. The calculators are similar to the Details form shown here.
   


Figure 15
 

Project Information (Figure 15)

 

Go to File > Project Info.

This screen allows the user to enter information about the project. Information input in this screen will appear in the report.


Figure 16
 

Print Design (Figure 16)

 

Go to File > Print

This screen appears when the user opts to print after completing a design. Initially, the software selects all available forms for printing. The user can de-select or reselect forms by clicking on boxes.
  

Report



 Report of Building Example

 

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